Friday, July 17, 2020

Masculinity Male Gender Role Stress and PTSD

Masculinity Male Gender Role Stress and PTSD PTSD Related Conditions Print Male Gender Role Stress and PTSD Stress about fitting into the masculine norm can make symptoms worse By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on April 08, 2019 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes & Risk Factors Treatment Living With In Children Hero Images/Hero Images/Getty Images The term male gender role stress refers to the experience of emotional distress as a result of violating or not adhering to traditional masculine gender role norms. Traditional masculine gender roles play a part in the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some men. Understanding Masculine Gender Roles Each society has its own rules about whats considered appropriate behavior for men and women. In Western societies, men have traditionally been expected to be self-reliant, not emotional (except with regard to the expression of anger), confident and strong. This is the traditional masculine gender role. Men differ in the extent to which they follow these rules. However, some of these rules go against basic and normal human responses to stress. So its not surprising that a number of studies have shown that men who try to strictly adhere to these rules and who fear violating these rules may be at risk for a wide range of negative outcomes including PTSD. Problems Linked to Male Gender Role Stress Men experiencing male gender role stress are more likely to experience anxiety, depression, problems controlling aggressive behavior and alcohol abuse. In addition, male gender role stress may also prevent certain men from seeking out social support or using other healthy coping skills. For example, men who fear violating male gender role norms may be less likely to talk about or express their emotions, especially with regard to emotions that could make them appear vulnerable, such as sadness or anxiety. Male Gender Role Stress and PTSD High male gender role stress may even contribute to PTSD. A couple of studies have found that male gender role stress is related to the experience of more severe PTSD symptoms. Heres how: Its thought that male gender role stress may prevent men from seeking out the help they need following the experience of a traumatic event, increasing the likelihood of developing PTSD.In addition, the use of alcohol or other unhealthy coping strategies (such as emotional avoidance) among men experiencing male gender stress following a traumatic event may prevent them from adequately processing emotions associated with the event. Getting Help If you are a man who has experienced a traumatic event, its important to know that emotions such as anxiety, fear, sadness, guilt or anger are common emotions that occur after a traumatic event. They are not a sign of weakness or a reason to feel shame because youre not following the traditional masculine gender role. In fact, it can take tremendous courage and strength to experience, express and seek out help for the intense negative emotions that can stem from a traumatic event. When seeking out help for the experience of a traumatic event, its important to be a consumer. If you notice that you experience high levels of male gender role stress, you may want to seek out a therapist  to whom you feel comfortable expressing your emotions. Finding a mental health provider can be an overwhelming and stressful task if you do not know where to look. Fortunately, there are several websites that provide free search engines that can help you find mental health providers in your area who treat PTSD.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Dennis Rader The Wish for Fame Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Short of what a year after he's come back to Wichita, on May 22, 1971, Dennis Rader and Paula Dietz were wedded. Paula was likewise from the same territory and had gone to the same secondary school. She was likewise an individual Lutheran. Dennis was 26; Paula was 23 when they got hitched. They settled in Park City, not a long way from the Rader home in north Wichita. Dennis was working in the meat branch of an IGA market, Paula was an accountant. In 1972 Rader went to work at the Coleman Co. , a producer of outdoors supplies and Wichita's biggest head honcho at the time. He worked 13 months there until July 1973. Rader then discovered a job with Cessna, the little airplane producer. He was likewise going to Butler County Community College in El Dorado and earned an Associate's (2 years) degree in Electronics in 1973 (Grice, 2010). In the fall of 1973, Rader started his studies at Wichita State University. It might take him six more years of night school to gain his degree (Porter Wenzi, 2008). We will write a custom essay sample on Dennis Rader: The Wish for Fame or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page There may have been indications of inconvenience at an opportune time since he used to hang stray felines as a tyke. Rader served in the U. S. Flying corps from the mid to late 1960s. He wedded his wife Paula in 1971 and worked for an outdoors apparatus organization for a couple of years.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hunger Games Sociology Essay - 1098 Words

Suzanne Collins’ novel The Hunger Games and its big screen adaptation follow the journey of a teenage girl in the dystopian country of Panem. Katniss Everdeen must fight to survive in a game of death against other youth from the twelve districts in Panem. However, The Hunger Games is not just a young adult genre obsession, but also a complex study of the social sciences. The symbolism and plot of The Hunger Games are prime examples of Sociology because they display different societal rules and norms, the struggle for power, and the importance of the media. Although The Hunger Games is set in the future, societal norms, rules and views still exist just as they do in today’s society. Macrosociology studies the wide perspective of such†¦show more content†¦Social constructs and the struggle for power are huge sociological aspects of The Hunger Games. The differences between the Capitol and the districts are easily noticed in the film and book; the bright and colo urful fashion, showing off wealth, and their carefree lifestyles are apparent. The Capitol and the ‘peacekeepers’ dehumanize the districts’ people at the reaping and throughout the novel. The Capitol uses these differences and the games to keep their control over the twelve districts and their citizens. In the novel, it is said that, â€Å"All year, the Capital will show the winning district gifts of grain and oil and even delicacies like sugar while the rest of us battle starvation.† Mass murder has become a foundation of their society. Karl Marx’s Conflict Theory suggests that society structures itself around imbalance , explaining the integration of the Hunger Games in Panem. Additionally, it describes the competition of groups for power. There are not only differences between the Capitol and the districts competing for power, but within the districts themselves. For example, District 10, 11, and 12 are much poorer than District 1, 2 or 3. This separation enables the conflict of rich vs poor. In the Capitol’s neighbouring districts, such as 1 and 2, they have a higher quality of life, and train their youth so that they can volunteer at the Reaping and have a greater chance of winning the games.Show MoreRelatedThe Sociology of the Hunger Games Essay1026 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Capitol and 13 districts. Each year, two young representatives from each district are selected by lottery to participate in The Hunger Games; these children are referred to as tributes (Collins, 2008). The Games are meant to be viewed as entertainment, but every citizen knows their purpose, as brutal intimidation of the subjugated districts. The televised games are broadcasted throughout Panem as the 24 participants are forced to eradicate their competitors, literally, with all citizens requiredRead MoreGender Roles : The Hunger Games Essay1193 Words   |  5 PagesMiguel Estrada English 103 Professor Stewart Essay 2 October 6, 2016 Gender Roles flipped? Suzanne Collins, the author of The Hunger Games, decided to do something different with her main protagonists, Katniss and Peeta. In the book, they seem to have flipped gender roles that society does not see males and females in such a way. For example, women have often been seen as housewives by society, which has set certain occupations and responsibilities they must abide to. Furthermore, womenRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Max Weber1437 Words   |  6 Pages Social stratification is a concept used within sociology that explains the divisions and social inequalities of large groups of people within a particular society. The Hunger Games (2012) is a film that demonstrates this through amplifying how the power of the rich members in a polarised society are taking control of the poor and separating them in different districts which create specific social rankings. This essay will use the perspective of conflict theory to examine how Australian society isRead MoreFunctionalist Perspective On Society As A Macro Institution1056 Words   |  5 PagesThe functionalist perspective In this essay I will outline and evaluate the functionalist perspective. This will include exploring the origins of the perspective, while explaining and evaluating how functionalists see society as a macro institution, rather than its many constituent parts. Further to this I will explore how functionalists deem the way society should be maintained and organised to maintain a functionalist’s ideal society. The consensus perspective is predominantly concerned with theRead MoreFeminism and the Marxist Theory in the Hunger Games1847 Words   |  8 Pagesrevolts, as a response to these rebellions the government of the Capitol has enacted a cruel intimidation tactic called The Hunger Games. It is a violent event televised nationally throughout all of the districts where a male and female from each district is picked as a Tribute. These Tributes must fight each other to the death and only one survivor will remain. The Hunger Games is the governments approach of displaying the amount of power they posses over the demoralized people of the twelve districtsRead MoreEssay on Comparison of George Herbert Mead and Sigmund Freud3378 Words   |  14 Pagesanimals. Freud’s term for human motivating forces was Trieb, which translates as to impulse or driving force (Bettelheim, 1992). Instincts were grouped into two general categories: the life instincts and the death instinct. Life instincts include hunger, thirst, and sex. The death instinct is a destructive force that can be directed inward as suicide, or outward as in hatred and aggression (Bettelheim, 1992). Sigmund Freud looked at levels of personality. Freud suggested mental life consisted ofRead MoreObesity and Its Impact on Todays Australian Culture and Society2983 Words   |  12 PagesMoslers view. They say that the low levels of obesity rate by survey in Asian countries not necessarily mean that people living there are healthier because Western countries have a longer life expectancy. Keeping both views in consideration, this essay will focus on answering the question whether obesity in Australia is caused by the lifestyle embedded in the Australian culture and adopted by Australian society or not. Todays Australian Culture and Society Culture of any country is the coreRead MoreTo What Extent Does Education Liberate People Within The Social Classes2662 Words   |  11 PagesThis essay will discuss to what extent does education liberate people within the social classes. It will also discuss how Paulo Freire’s theory on how education can liberate people, furthermore considering how the Amish community may fail to be liberated through education. The definition of education is ‘the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life’. AlsoRead MorePopular Culture and Violent Behavior Essay11795 Words   |  48 Pagesculture and is based primarily on marketing, mass production and revenue. Low culture is what is sold to the masses, ergo, low culture equals mass culture. All these terms refer to popular culture, defined in the Oxford Dictionary of Sociology as: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦accessible to everyone. Popular culture is far more widespread than high culture and in the United Statesand in Europe, for example, it is dominated by television, films and recorded popular music. [2] I have chosenRead MoreFood Politics7528 Words   |  31 PagesAgriculture Organization calculated that there is enough food to feed the world 1.5x over (Holt-Gimenez and Patel 2009). While there is adequate food to end world hunger, the problem continues due to greed and unequal power distribution. International policies by the World Health Organization (WHO) have attempted to put an end to world hunger, but because the outcomes of these policies do not benefit the bottom lines of the state and of corporations, they are not supported (Paarlberg 2011). In our own

Boko Haram Free Essays

string(176) " into exile by the British authorities, he refused to believe Mohammed was the Prophet and instigated riots in the country which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people\." Boko Haram From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Boko Haram People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad | Participant in the Nigerian Sharia conflict| Active| 2002–| Ideology| Islamism Islamic fundamentalism Oppose man-made law Support strict sharia law| Leaders| Mohammed Yusuf Abubakar Shekau[1] Mallam Sanni Umaru[2][3][not in citation given]Abu Qaqa – spokesman[4] Abu Zaid – spokesman[3]| Headquarters| Kanamma, Nigeria| Area  of operations| Northern Nigeria| Opponents| Nigerian State| Battles/wars| Nigerian Sharia conflict 2009 Nigerian sectarian violence| Map of Nigerian states that currently implement Shariah (in green) People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad[5] (Arabic: , Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad), better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram, is a jihadist terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria. 6] It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2001[7] or 2002,[8] the organisation is a Muslim sect that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish sharia law in the country. We will write a custom essay sample on Boko Haram or any similar topic only for you Order Now [9][10] The group is also known for attacking Christian churches. [11] The movement, whose name in the Hausa language, Boko Haram, translates as â€Å"Western education is sacrilege†[9] or â€Å"a sin†,[12] is divided into three factions, and in 2011, was responsible for more than 450 killings in Nigeria. 9] Though the group first became known internationally following sectarian violence in Nigeria in 2009, it does not have a clear structure or evident chain of command. [13] Moreover, it is still a matter of debate whether Boko Haram has links to terror outfits outside Nigeria and its fighters have frequently clashed with Nigeria’s central government. [9] Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 Ideology * 2. 1 Criticism * 3 History * 3. 1 Background * 3. 2 Origin * 3. 3 The beginning of violence * 3. 4 Reemergence * 4 Assessment * 5 Funding * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links| Etymology The group has adopted its official name to be People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad, which is the English translation of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad ( ). In the town of Maiduguri, where the group was formed, the residents dubbed it Boko Haram. The term â€Å"Boko Haram† comes from the Hausa word boko meaning â€Å"western education† and the Arabic word haram figuratively meaning â€Å"sin† (literally, â€Å"forbidden†). [14][15][16][17] The name, loosely translated from Hausa, means â€Å"western education is forbidden†. The group earned this name due to its strong opposition to anything Western, which it sees as corrupting Muslims. [18] Ideology Boko Haram is an indigenous Salafist group which only turned itself into a Salafist Jihadist group in 2009. [6] It propagates that not only interaction with the Western World is forbidden, but it is also against the Muslim establishment and the government of Nigeria. [19] The group publicly extols its ideology despite the fact that its founder and former leader Muhammad Yusuf was himself a highly educated man who lived a lavish life and drove a Mercedes Benz. 14] The members of the group do not interact with the local Muslim population[20] and have carried out assassinations in the past of any one who criticises it, including Muslim clerics. [18] In a 2009 BBC interview, Muhammad Yusuf, then leader of the group, stated his belief that the concept of a spherical Earth is contrary to Islamic teaching and should be rejected, along with Darwinian evolution and t he concept of rain originating from water evaporated by the sun. [21] Before his death, Yusuf reiterated the group’s objective of changing the current education system and rejecting democracy. 22] Nigerian academic Hussain Zakaria told BBC News that the controversial cleric had a graduate education, spoke proficient English, lived a lavish lifestyle and drove a Mercedes-Benz. [21] In the wake of the 2009 crackdown on its members and its subsequent reemergence, the growing frequency and geographical range of attacks attributed to Boko Haram have led some political and religious leaders in the north to the conclusion that the group has now expanded beyond its original religious composition to include not only Islamic militants, but criminal elements and disgruntled politicians as well. Boko Haram has become a franchise that anyone can buy into. It’s something like a Bermuda Triangle,† said Borno State Governor Kashim Shettima. [23] Criticism Dr Mu’azu Babang ida Aliyu, the Niger State governor, has criticised the group saying â€Å"Islam is known to be a religion of peace and does not condone violence and crime in any form† and Boko Haram doesn’t represent Islam. [24] The Sultan of Sokoto Sa’adu Abubakar, the spiritual leader of Nigerian Muslims, has called the sect â€Å"anti-Islamic† and, as reported by the website AllAfrica. om, â€Å"an embarrassment to Islam. â€Å"[25] The Coalition of Muslim Clerics in Nigeria (CMCN) have called on the Boko Haram to disarm and embrace peace. [26] The Islamic Circle of North America,[27] the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada,[28] The Muslim Council of Britain,[29] the Organization of Islamic Cooperation[30] and the Council on American Islamic Relations[31] have all condemned the group. History Background Main articles: Islam in Nigeria and Colonial Nigeria Before colonisation and subsequent annexation into the British Empire, the Bornu Empire ruled the territory where Boko Haram is currently active. It was a sovereign sultanate run according to the principles of the Constitution of Medina, with a majority Kanuri Muslim population. The Bornu Sultanate emerged after the overthrow of the Kanem-Bornu Empire ruled by the Saifawa dynasty for over 2000 years. The Bornu Sultanate of the Kanuri is distinct from the Sokoto Caliphate of the Hausa/Fulani established in 1802 by the military conquest of Usman dan Fodio. 6] Both the Bornu Sultanate and Sokoto Caliphate came under control of the British in 1903. However, due to activities of early Christian missionaries who used Western education as a tool for evangelism, it is viewed with suspicion by the local population. [18] Increased dissatisfaction gave rise to many fundamentalists among the Kanuri and other peoples of northeast Nigeria. One of the most famous such fundamentalists was Mohammed M arwa, also known as Maitatsine, who was at the height of his notoriety during the 1970s and 1980s. He was sent into exile by the British authorities, he refused to believe Mohammed was the Prophet and instigated riots in the country which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people. You read "Boko Haram" in category "Papers" Some analysts view Boko Haram as an extension of the Maitatsine riots. [32] Origin The group was founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002 in the city of Maiduguri with the aim of establishing a Shari’a government in Borno State under former Governor Ali Modu Sheriff. [7][32] He established a religious complex that included a mosque and a school where many poor families from across Nigeria and from neighboring countries enrolled their children. 18] The centre had ulterior political goals and soon it was also working as a recruiting ground for future jihadis to fight the state. [18] The group includes members who come from neighbouring Chad and Niger and speak only Arabic. [33] In 2004 the complex was relocated to Yusuf’s home state of Yobe in the villa ge Kanamma near the Niger border. [22] Human Rights Watch researcher Eric Guttschuss told IRIN News that Yusuf successfully attracted followers from unemployed youth â€Å"by speaking out against police and political corruption. Abdulkarim Mohammed, a researcher on Boko Haram, added that violent uprisings in Nigeria are ultimately due to â€Å"the fallout of frustration with corruption and the attendant social malaise of poverty and unemployment. â€Å"[34] The beginning of violence Timeline of incidents| 7 September 2010| Bauchi prison break[35]| 31 December 2010| December 2010 Abuja attack[36]| 22 April 2011| Boko Haram frees 14 prisoners during a jailbreak in Yola, Adamawa State[37]| 29 May 2011| May 2011 northern Nigeria bombings[38]| 6 June 2011| The group claims responsibility for the 2011 Abuja police headquarters bombing[39][40]| 26 June 2011| Bombing attack on a beer garden in Maiduguri, leaving 25 dead and 12 injured[41][42]| 10 July 2011| Bombing at the All Christian F ellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State[43]| 11 July 2011| The University of Maiduguri temperory closes down its campus citing security concerns[44]| 12 August 2011| Prominent Muslim Cleric Liman Bana is shot dead by Boko Haram[45]| 26 August 2011| 2011 Abuja bombing[46]| November 2011| 2011 Damaturu attacks[40][47][48]| 25 December 2011| December 2011 Nigeria bombings[49]| 5–6 January 2012| January 2012 Nigeria attacks[50]| 20 January 2012| January 2012 Kano bombings[51]| 28 January 2012| Nigerian army says it killed 11 Boko Haram insurgents[52]| 8 February 2012| Boko Haram claims responsibility for a suicide bombing at the army headquarters in Kaduna. [53]| 16 February 2012| Another prison break staged in central Nigeria; 119 prisoners are released, one warder killed. 54]| 8 March 2012| During a British hostage rescue attempt to free Italian engineer Franco Lamolinara and Briton Christopher McManus, abducted in 2011 by a splinter group Boko Haram, both hostages were killed. [55]| The group conducted its operations more or less peacefully during the first seven years of its existence[6] That changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group’s activities following reports that its members were arming themselves. 56] Prior to that the government reportedly repeatedly ignored warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organisation, including that of a military officer. [56] When the government came into action, several members of the group were arrested in Bauchi, sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Haram fighters reportedly â€Å"used fuel-laden motorcycles† and â€Å"bows with poison arrows† to attack a police station. [57] The group’s founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was killed during this time while in police custody. 58][59][60] After Yusuf’s killing, a new leader emerged whose identity was not known at the time. [61] Reemergence After the killing of M. Yusuf, the group carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno in January 2010. It resulted in the killing of four people. [62] Since then, the violence has only escalated in terms of both frequency and intensity. In January 2012, Abubakar Shekau, a former deputy to Yusuf, appeared in a video posted on YouTube. According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after Yusuf’s death in 2009. [1] Authorities had previously believed that Shekau died during the violence in 2009. 63] By early 2012, the group was responsible for over 900 deaths. [64] Assessment Boko Haram is considered a major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigeria and other countries, and U. S. officials believe it is potentially allied with Al Qaeda. U. S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) Commander General Carter F. Ham stated in September 2011 that three African terrorist groups – Shabab of Somalia, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb across the Sahel region, and Boko Haram – â€Å"have very explicitly and publicly voiced an intent to target Westerners, and the U. S. specifically† and that he was concerned with â€Å"the voiced intent of the three organizations to more closely collaborate and synchronize their efforts. â€Å"[65] General Ham reiterated his concern after the Christmas Day 2011 bombings of churches in Nigeria: â€Å"I remain greatly concerned about their stated intent to connect with Al Qaeda senior leadership, most likely through Al Qaeda in the lands of the Islamic Maghreb. †[65] The US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence urged the Obama Administration and U. S. intelligence community in November 2011 to focus on Boko Haram as a potential threat to United States territory. [66] Nigeria’s National Security Adviser, General Owoye Andrew Azazi, has been working with other African governments, European and Middle Eastern governments, and the U. S. government to build cooperation against Boko Haram. He met in 2010 with then-CIA Director Leon Panetta, and in 2011 with AFRICOM Commander General Ham, and other U. S. fficials, and was in the United States when the congressional panel was preparing its report on Boko Haram. He participated in a CIA conference at about the same time. [67] After the Christmas 2011 bombings carried out by Boko Haram, President Barack Obama’s office issued a statement that confirmed that the U. S. and Nigeria were cooperating at a senior level against the terrorist group. [68] Funding A spokesman of Boko Haram claimed that Kano state governor Ibrahim Shekarau and Bauchi state governor Isa Yuguda has paid them monthly. [69][70] How to cite Boko Haram, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Law of Acceleration Essay Example

Law of Acceleration Essay Images are not arguments, rarely even lead to proof, but the mind craves them, and, of late more than ever, the keenest experimenters find twenty images better than one, especially if contradictory; since the human mind has already learned to deal in contradictions. The image needed here is that of a new center, or preponderating mass, artificially introduced on earth in the midst of a system of attractive forces that previously made their own quilibrium, and constantly induced to accelerate its motion till it shall establish a new equilibrium. A dynamic theory would begin by assuming that all history, terrestrial or cosmic, mechanical or intellectual, would be reducible to this formula if we knew the facts. For convenience, the most familiar image should come first; and this is probably that of the comet, or meteoric streams, like the Leonids and Perseids; a complex of minute mechanical agencies, reacting within and without, and guided by the sum of forces attracting or deflecting i t.Nothing forbids one to assume that the man-meteorite might grow, as an acorn does, absorbing light, heat, electricity,or thought; for, in recent times, such transference of energy has become a familiar idea; but the simplest figure, at first, is that of a perfect comet,say that of 1843,which drops from space, in a straight line, at the regular acceleration of speed, directly into the sun, and after wheeling sharply about it, in heat that ought to dissipate any known substance, turns back unharmed, in defiance of law, by the path on which it came.The mind, by analogy, may figure as such a comet, the better because it also defies law. Motion is the ultimate object of science, and measures of motion are many; but with thought as with matter, the true measure is mass in its astronomic sense—the sum or difference of attractive forces. Science has quite enough trouble in measuring its material motions without volunteering help to the historian, but the historian needs not much he lp to measure some kinds of social movement; and especially in the nineteenth century, society by common accord agreed in measuring its progress by the coal-output.The ratio of increase in the volume of coal-power may serve as dynamometer. The coal-output of the world, speaking roughly, doubled every ten years between 1840 and 1900, in the form of utilized power, for the ton of coal yielded three or four times as much power in 1900 as in 1840. Rapid as this rate of acceleration in volume seems, it may be tested in a thousand ways without greatly reducing it.Perhaps the ocean steamer is nearest unity and easiest to measure, for any one might hire, in 1905, for a small sum of money, the use of 30,000 steam-horse-power to cross the ocean, and by halving this figure every ten years, he got back to 234 horse-power for 1835, which was accuracy enough for his purposes. In truth, his chief trouble came not from the ratio in volume of heat, but from the intensity, since he could get no basis for a ratio there.All ages of history have known high intensities, like the iron-furnace, the burning-glass, the blow-pipe; but no society has ever used high intensities on any large scale till now, nor can a mere bystander decide what range of temperature is now in common use. Loosely guessing that science controls habitually the whole range from absolute zero to 3000 ° Centigrade, one might assume, for convenience, that the ten-year ratio for volume could be used temporarily for intensity; and still there remained a ratio to be guessed for other forces than heat.Since 1800 scores of new forces had been discovered; old forces had been raised to higher powers, as could be measured in the navy-gun; great regions of chemistry had been opened up, and connected with other regions of physics. Within ten years a new universe of force had been revealed in radiation. Complexity had extended itself on immense horizons, and arithmetical ratios were useless for any attempt at accuracy. The force evolved seemed more like explosion than gravitation, and followed closely the curve of steam; but, at all events, the ten-year ratio seemed carefully conservative.Unless the calculator was prepared to be instantly overwhelmed by physical force and mental complexity, he must stop there. Thus, taking the year 1900 as the starting point for carrying back the series, nothing was easier than to assume a ten-year period of retardation as far back as 1820, but beyond that point the statistician failed, and only the mathematician could help. Laplace would have found it child’s-play to fix a ratio of progression in mathematical science between Descartes, Leibnitz, Newton, and himself. Watt could have given in pounds the increase of power between Newcomen’s engines and his own.Volta and Benjamin Franklin would have stated their progress as absolute creation of power. Dalton could have measured minutely his advance on Boerhave. Napoleon I must have had a distinct notion of his own numerical relation to Louis XIV. No one in 1789 doubted the progress of force, least of all those who were to lose their heads by it. Pending agreement between these authorities, theory may assume what it likes—say a fifty, or even a five-and-twenty-year period of reduplication for the eighteenth century, for the period matters little until the acceleration itself is admitted.The subject is even more amusing in the seventeenth than in the eighteenth century, because Galileo and Kepler, Descartes, Huygens, and Isaac Newton took vast pains to fix the laws of acceleration for moving bodies, while Lord Bacon and William Harvey were content with showing experimentally the fact of acceleration in knowledge; but from their combined results a historian might be tempted to maintain a similar rate of movement back to 1600, subject to correction from the historians of mathematics. The mathematicians might carry their calculations back as far as the fourteenth century when algebr a seems to have become for the first time the tandard measure of mechanical progress in western Europe; for not only Copernicus and Tycho Brahe, but even artists like Leonardo, Michael Angelo, and Albert Durer worked by mathematical processes, and their testimony would probably give results more exact than that of Montaigne or Shakespeare; but, to save trouble, one might tentatively carry back the same ratio of acceleration, or retardation, to the year 1400, with the help of Columbus and Gutenberg, so taking a uniform rate during the whole four centuries (1400–1800), and leaving to statisticians the task of correcting it.Or better, one might, for convenience, use the formula of squares to serve for a law of mind. Any other formula would do as well, either of chemical explosion, or electrolysis, or vegetable growth, or of expansion or contraction in innumerable forms; but this happens to be simple and convenient. Its force increases in the direct ratio of its squares. As the h uman meteoroid approached the sun or center of attractive force, the attraction of one century squared itself to give the measure of attraction in the next.Behind the year 1400, the process certainly went on, but the progress became so slight as to be hardly measurable. What was gained in the east or elsewhere, cannot be known; but forces, called loosely Greek fire and gunpowder, came into use in the west in the thirteenth century, as well as instruments like the compass, the blow-pipe, clocks and spectacles, and materials like paper; Arabic notation and algebra were introduced, while metaphysics and theology acted as violent stimulants to mind. An architect might detect a sequence between the Church of St.Peter’s at Rome, the Amiens Cathedral, the Duomo at Pisa, San Marco at Venice, Sancta Sofia at Constantinople and the churches at Ravenna. All the historian dares affirm is that a sequence is manifestly there, and he has a right to carry back his ratio, to represent the fac t, without assuming its numerical correctness. On the human mind as a moving body, the break in acceleration in the middle-ages is only apparent; the attraction worked through shifting forms of force, as the sun works by light or heat, electricity, gravitation, or what not, on different organs with different sensibilities, but with invariable law.The science of prehistoric man has no value except to prove that the law went back into indefinite antiquity. A stone arrowhead is as convincing as a steam-engine. The values were as clear a hundred thousand years ago as now, and extended equally over the whole world. The motion at last became infinitely slight, but cannot be proved to have stopped. The motion of Newton’s comet at aphelion may be equally slight. To evolutionists may be left the processes of evolution; to historians the single interest is the law of reaction between force and force,between mind and nature,the law of progress.The great division of history into phases b y Turgot and Comte first affirmed this law in its outlines by asserting the unity of progress, for a mere phase interrupts no growth, and nature shows innumerable such phases. The development of coal-power in the nineteenth century furnished the first means of assigning closer values to the elements; and the appearance of supersensual forces towards 1900 made this calculation a pressing necessity; since the next step became infinitely serious.A law of acceleration, definite and constant as any law of mechanics, cannot be supposed to relax its energy to suit the convenience of man. No one is likely to suggest a theory that man’s convenience had been consulted by Nature at any time, or that Nature has consulted the convenience of any of her creations, except perhaps the Terebratula. In every age man has bitterly and justly complained that Nature hurried and hustled him, for inertia almost invariably has ended in tragedy. Resistance is its law, and resistance to superior mass is futile and fatal.Fifty years ago, science took for granted that the rate of acceleration could not last. The world forgets quickly, but even today the habit remains of founding statistics on the faith that consumption will continue nearly stationary. Two generations, with John Stuart Mill, talked of this stationary period, which was to follow the explosion of new power. All the men who were elderly in the forties died in this faith, and other men grew old nursing the same conviction, and happy in it; while science, for fifty ears, permitted, or encouraged, society to think that force would prove to be limited in supply. This mental inertia of science lasted through the eighties before showing signs of breaking up; and nothing short of radium fairly wakened men to the fact, long since evident, that force was inexhaustible. Even then the scientific authorities vehemently resisted. Nothing so revolutionary had happened since the year 300. Thought had more than once been upset, but nev er caught and whirled about in the vortex of infinite forces.Power leaped from every atom, and enough of it to supply the stellar universe showed itself running to waste at every pore of matter. Man could no longer hold it off. Forces grasped his wrists and flung him about as though he had hold of a live wire or a runaway automobile; which was very nearly the exact truth for the purposes of an elderly and timid single gentleman in Paris, who never drove down the Champs Elysees without expecting an accident, and commonly witnessing one; or found himself in the neighborhood of an official without calculating the chances of a bomb.So long as the rates of progress held good, these bombs would double in force and number every ten years. Impossibilities no longer stood in the way. One’s life had fattened on impossibilities. Before the boy was six years old, he had seen four impossibilities made actual,the ocean-steamer, the railway, the electric telegraph, and the Daguerreotype; no r could he ever learn which of the four had most hurried others to come. He had seen the coal-output of the United States grow from nothing to three hundred million tons or more.What was far more serious, he had seen the number of minds, engaged in pursuing forcethe truest measure of its attractionincrease from a few scores or hundreds, in 1838, to many thousands in 1905, trained to sharpness never before reached, and armed with instruments amounting to new senses of indefinite power and accuracy, while they chased force into hiding-places where Nature herself had never known it to be, making analyses that contradicted being, and syntheses that endangered the elements.No one could say that the social mind now failed to respond to new force, even when the new force annoyed it horribly. Every day Nature violently revolted, causing so-called accidents with enormous destruction of property and life, while plainly laughing at man, who helplessly groaned and shrieked and shuddered, but ne ver for a single instant could stop. The railways alone approached the carnage of war; automobiles and fire-arms ravaged society, until an earthquake became almost a nervous relaxation.An immense volume of force had detached itself from the unknown universe of energy, while still vaster reservoirs, supposed to be infinite, steadily revealed themselves, attracting mankind with more compulsive course than all the Pontic Seas or Gods or Gold that ever existed, and feeling still less of retiring ebb. In 1850, science would have smiled at such a romance as this, but, in 1900, as far as history could learn, few men of science thought it a laughing matter. If a perplexed but laborious follower could venture to guess their drift, it seemed in their minds a toss-up between anarchy and order.Unless they should be more honest with themselves in the future than ever they were in the past, they would be more astonished than their followers when they reached the end. If Karl Pearson’s noti ons of the universe were sound, men like Galileo, Descartes, Leibnitz, and Newton should have stopped the progress of science before 1700, supposing them to have been honest in the religious convictions they expressed. In 1900 they were plainly forced back on faith in a unity unproved and an order they had themselves disproved.They had reduced their universe to a series of relations to themselves. They had reduced themselves to motion in a universe of motions, with an acceleration, in their own case of vertiginous violence. With the correctness of their science, history had no right to meddle, since their science now lay in a plane where scarcely one or two hundred minds in the world could follow its mathematical processes; but bombs educate vigorously, and even wireless telegraphy or airships might require the reconstruction of society.If any analogy whatever existed between the human mind, on one side, and the laws of motion, on the other, the mind had already entered a field of a ttraction so violent that it must immediately pass beyond, into new equilibrium, like the Comet of Newton, to suffer dissipation altogether, like meteoroids in the earth’s atmosphere. If it behaved like an explosive, it must rapidly recover equilibrium; if it behaved like a vegetable, it must reach its limits of growth; and even if it acted like the earlier creations of energy,the Saurians and Sharks,it must have nearly reached the limits of its expansion.If science were to go on doubling or quadrupling its complexities every ten years, even mathematics would soon succumb. An average mind had succumbed already in 1850; it could no longer understand the problem in 1900. Fortunately, a student of history had no responsibility for the problem; he took it as science gave it, and waited only to be taught. With science or with society, he had no quarrel and claimed no share of authority. He had never been able to acquire knowledge, still less to impart it; and if he had, at times, felt serious differences with the American of the nineteenth century, he felt none with the American of the twentieth.For this new creation, born since 1900, a historian asked no longer to be teacher or even friend; he asked only to be a pupil, and promised to be docile, for once, even though trodden under foot; for he could see that the new American,the child of incalculable coal-power, chemical power, electric power, and radiating energy, as well as of new forces yet undetermined,must be a sort of God compared with any former creation of nature. At the rate of progress since 1800, every American who lived into the year 2000 would know how to control unlimited power.He would think in complexities unimaginable to an earlier mind. He would deal with problems altogether beyond the range of earlier society. To him the nineteenth century would stand on the same plane with the fourth,equally childlike,and he would only wonder how both of them, knowing so little, and so weak in force, sho uld have done so much. Perhaps even he might go back, in 1964, to sit with Gibbon on the steps of Ara Coeli. Meanwhile he was getting education. With that, a teacher who had failed to educate even the generation of 1870, dared not interfere.The new forces would educate. History saw few lessons in the past that would be useful in the future; but one, at least, it did see. The attempt of the American of 1800 to educate the American of 1900 had not often been surpassed for folly; and since 1800 the forces and their complications had increased a thousand times or more. The attempt of the American of 1900 to educate the American of 2000, must be even blinder than that of the Congressman of 1800, except so far as he had learned his ignorance. During a million or two of years, very generation in turn had toiled with endless agony to attain and apply power, all the while betraying the deepest alarm and horror at the power they created. The teacher of 1900, if foolhardy, might stimulate; if foolish, might resist; if intelligent, might balance, as wise and foolish have often tried to do from the beginning; but the forces would continue to educate, and the mind would continue to react. All the teacher could hope was to teach it reaction. Even there his difficulty was extreme. The most elementary books of science betrayed the inadequacy of old implements of thought.Chapter after chapter closed with phrases such as one never met in older literature:The cause of this phenomenon is not understood; science no longer ventures to explain causes; the first step towards a causal explanation still remains to be taken; opinions are very much divided; in spite of the contradictions involved; science gets on only by adopting different theories, sometimes contradictory. Evidently the new American would need to think in contradictions, and instead of Kant’s famous four antinomies, the new universe would know no law that could not be proved by its anti-law.To educateoneself to b egin withhad been the effort of one’s life for sixty years; and the difficulties of education had gone on doubling with the coal output, until the prospect of waiting another ten years, in order to face a seventh doubling of complexities, allured one’s imagination but slightly. The law of acceleration was definite, and did not require ten years more study except to show whether it held good. No scheme could be suggested to the new American, and no fault needed to be found, or complaint made; but the next great influx of new forces seemed near at hand, and its style of education promised to be violently coercive.The movement from unity into multiplicity, between 1200 and 1900, was unbroken in sequence, and rapid in acceleration. Prolonged one generation longer, it would require a new social mind. As though thought were common salt in indefinite solution it must enter a new phase subject to new laws. Thus far, since five or ten thousand years, the mind had successfully r eacted, and nothing yet proved that it would fail to react,but it would need to jump. The Education of Henry Adams  was published in 1907. A Centennial Version, edited by Edward Chalfant and Conrad Edick Wright, was published by the Massachusetts Historical Society in January 2007. Law of Acceleration Essay Example Law of Acceleration Essay Images are not arguments, rarely even lead to proof, but the mind craves them, and, of late more than ever, the keenest experimenters find twenty images better than one, especially if contradictory; since the human mind has already learned to deal in contradictions. The image needed here is that of a new center, or preponderating mass, artificially introduced on earth in the midst of a system of attractive forces that previously made their own quilibrium, and constantly induced to accelerate its motion till it shall establish a new equilibrium. A dynamic theory would begin by assuming that all history, terrestrial or cosmic, mechanical or intellectual, would be reducible to this formula if we knew the facts. For convenience, the most familiar image should come first; and this is probably that of the comet, or meteoric streams, like the Leonids and Perseids; a complex of minute mechanical agencies, reacting within and without, and guided by the sum of forces attracting or deflecting i t.Nothing forbids one to assume that the man-meteorite might grow, as an acorn does, absorbing light, heat, electricity,or thought; for, in recent times, such transference of energy has become a familiar idea; but the simplest figure, at first, is that of a perfect comet,say that of 1843,which drops from space, in a straight line, at the regular acceleration of speed, directly into the sun, and after wheeling sharply about it, in heat that ought to dissipate any known substance, turns back unharmed, in defiance of law, by the path on which it came.The mind, by analogy, may figure as such a comet, the better because it also defies law. Motion is the ultimate object of science, and measures of motion are many; but with thought as with matter, the true measure is mass in its astronomic sense—the sum or difference of attractive forces. Science has quite enough trouble in measuring its material motions without volunteering help to the historian, but the historian needs not much he lp to measure some kinds of social movement; and especially in the nineteenth century, society by common accord agreed in measuring its progress by the coal-output.The ratio of increase in the volume of coal-power may serve as dynamometer. The coal-output of the world, speaking roughly, doubled every ten years between 1840 and 1900, in the form of utilized power, for the ton of coal yielded three or four times as much power in 1900 as in 1840. Rapid as this rate of acceleration in volume seems, it may be tested in a thousand ways without greatly reducing it.Perhaps the ocean steamer is nearest unity and easiest to measure, for any one might hire, in 1905, for a small sum of money, the use of 30,000 steam-horse-power to cross the ocean, and by halving this figure every ten years, he got back to 234 horse-power for 1835, which was accuracy enough for his purposes. In truth, his chief trouble came not from the ratio in volume of heat, but from the intensity, since he could get no basis for a ratio there.All ages of history have known high intensities, like the iron-furnace, the burning-glass, the blow-pipe; but no society has ever used high intensities on any large scale till now, nor can a mere bystander decide what range of temperature is now in common use. Loosely guessing that science controls habitually the whole range from absolute zero to 3000 ° Centigrade, one might assume, for convenience, that the ten-year ratio for volume could be used temporarily for intensity; and still there remained a ratio to be guessed for other forces than heat.Since 1800 scores of new forces had been discovered; old forces had been raised to higher powers, as could be measured in the navy-gun; great regions of chemistry had been opened up, and connected with other regions of physics. Within ten years a new universe of force had been revealed in radiation. Complexity had extended itself on immense horizons, and arithmetical ratios were useless for any attempt at accuracy. The force evolved seemed more like explosion than gravitation, and followed closely the curve of steam; but, at all events, the ten-year ratio seemed carefully conservative.Unless the calculator was prepared to be instantly overwhelmed by physical force and mental complexity, he must stop there. Thus, taking the year 1900 as the starting point for carrying back the series, nothing was easier than to assume a ten-year period of retardation as far back as 1820, but beyond that point the statistician failed, and only the mathematician could help. Laplace would have found it child’s-play to fix a ratio of progression in mathematical science between Descartes, Leibnitz, Newton, and himself. Watt could have given in pounds the increase of power between Newcomen’s engines and his own.Volta and Benjamin Franklin would have stated their progress as absolute creation of power. Dalton could have measured minutely his advance on Boerhave. Napoleon I must have had a distinct notion of his own numerical relation to Louis XIV. No one in 1789 doubted the progress of force, least of all those who were to lose their heads by it. Pending agreement between these authorities, theory may assume what it likes—say a fifty, or even a five-and-twenty-year period of reduplication for the eighteenth century, for the period matters little until the acceleration itself is admitted.The subject is even more amusing in the seventeenth than in the eighteenth century, because Galileo and Kepler, Descartes, Huygens, and Isaac Newton took vast pains to fix the laws of acceleration for moving bodies, while Lord Bacon and William Harvey were content with showing experimentally the fact of acceleration in knowledge; but from their combined results a historian might be tempted to maintain a similar rate of movement back to 1600, subject to correction from the historians of mathematics. The mathematicians might carry their calculations back as far as the fourteenth century when algebr a seems to have become for the first time the tandard measure of mechanical progress in western Europe; for not only Copernicus and Tycho Brahe, but even artists like Leonardo, Michael Angelo, and Albert Durer worked by mathematical processes, and their testimony would probably give results more exact than that of Montaigne or Shakespeare; but, to save trouble, one might tentatively carry back the same ratio of acceleration, or retardation, to the year 1400, with the help of Columbus and Gutenberg, so taking a uniform rate during the whole four centuries (1400–1800), and leaving to statisticians the task of correcting it.Or better, one might, for convenience, use the formula of squares to serve for a law of mind. Any other formula would do as well, either of chemical explosion, or electrolysis, or vegetable growth, or of expansion or contraction in innumerable forms; but this happens to be simple and convenient. Its force increases in the direct ratio of its squares. As the h uman meteoroid approached the sun or center of attractive force, the attraction of one century squared itself to give the measure of attraction in the next.Behind the year 1400, the process certainly went on, but the progress became so slight as to be hardly measurable. What was gained in the east or elsewhere, cannot be known; but forces, called loosely Greek fire and gunpowder, came into use in the west in the thirteenth century, as well as instruments like the compass, the blow-pipe, clocks and spectacles, and materials like paper; Arabic notation and algebra were introduced, while metaphysics and theology acted as violent stimulants to mind. An architect might detect a sequence between the Church of St.Peter’s at Rome, the Amiens Cathedral, the Duomo at Pisa, San Marco at Venice, Sancta Sofia at Constantinople and the churches at Ravenna. All the historian dares affirm is that a sequence is manifestly there, and he has a right to carry back his ratio, to represent the fac t, without assuming its numerical correctness. On the human mind as a moving body, the break in acceleration in the middle-ages is only apparent; the attraction worked through shifting forms of force, as the sun works by light or heat, electricity, gravitation, or what not, on different organs with different sensibilities, but with invariable law.The science of prehistoric man has no value except to prove that the law went back into indefinite antiquity. A stone arrowhead is as convincing as a steam-engine. The values were as clear a hundred thousand years ago as now, and extended equally over the whole world. The motion at last became infinitely slight, but cannot be proved to have stopped. The motion of Newton’s comet at aphelion may be equally slight. To evolutionists may be left the processes of evolution; to historians the single interest is the law of reaction between force and force,between mind and nature,the law of progress.The great division of history into phases b y Turgot and Comte first affirmed this law in its outlines by asserting the unity of progress, for a mere phase interrupts no growth, and nature shows innumerable such phases. The development of coal-power in the nineteenth century furnished the first means of assigning closer values to the elements; and the appearance of supersensual forces towards 1900 made this calculation a pressing necessity; since the next step became infinitely serious.A law of acceleration, definite and constant as any law of mechanics, cannot be supposed to relax its energy to suit the convenience of man. No one is likely to suggest a theory that man’s convenience had been consulted by Nature at any time, or that Nature has consulted the convenience of any of her creations, except perhaps the Terebratula. In every age man has bitterly and justly complained that Nature hurried and hustled him, for inertia almost invariably has ended in tragedy. Resistance is its law, and resistance to superior mass is futile and fatal.Fifty years ago, science took for granted that the rate of acceleration could not last. The world forgets quickly, but even today the habit remains of founding statistics on the faith that consumption will continue nearly stationary. Two generations, with John Stuart Mill, talked of this stationary period, which was to follow the explosion of new power. All the men who were elderly in the forties died in this faith, and other men grew old nursing the same conviction, and happy in it; while science, for fifty ears, permitted, or encouraged, society to think that force would prove to be limited in supply. This mental inertia of science lasted through the eighties before showing signs of breaking up; and nothing short of radium fairly wakened men to the fact, long since evident, that force was inexhaustible. Even then the scientific authorities vehemently resisted. Nothing so revolutionary had happened since the year 300. Thought had more than once been upset, but nev er caught and whirled about in the vortex of infinite forces.Power leaped from every atom, and enough of it to supply the stellar universe showed itself running to waste at every pore of matter. Man could no longer hold it off. Forces grasped his wrists and flung him about as though he had hold of a live wire or a runaway automobile; which was very nearly the exact truth for the purposes of an elderly and timid single gentleman in Paris, who never drove down the Champs Elysees without expecting an accident, and commonly witnessing one; or found himself in the neighborhood of an official without calculating the chances of a bomb.So long as the rates of progress held good, these bombs would double in force and number every ten years. Impossibilities no longer stood in the way. One’s life had fattened on impossibilities. Before the boy was six years old, he had seen four impossibilities made actual,the ocean-steamer, the railway, the electric telegraph, and the Daguerreotype; no r could he ever learn which of the four had most hurried others to come. He had seen the coal-output of the United States grow from nothing to three hundred million tons or more.What was far more serious, he had seen the number of minds, engaged in pursuing forcethe truest measure of its attractionincrease from a few scores or hundreds, in 1838, to many thousands in 1905, trained to sharpness never before reached, and armed with instruments amounting to new senses of indefinite power and accuracy, while they chased force into hiding-places where Nature herself had never known it to be, making analyses that contradicted being, and syntheses that endangered the elements.No one could say that the social mind now failed to respond to new force, even when the new force annoyed it horribly. Every day Nature violently revolted, causing so-called accidents with enormous destruction of property and life, while plainly laughing at man, who helplessly groaned and shrieked and shuddered, but ne ver for a single instant could stop. The railways alone approached the carnage of war; automobiles and fire-arms ravaged society, until an earthquake became almost a nervous relaxation.An immense volume of force had detached itself from the unknown universe of energy, while still vaster reservoirs, supposed to be infinite, steadily revealed themselves, attracting mankind with more compulsive course than all the Pontic Seas or Gods or Gold that ever existed, and feeling still less of retiring ebb. In 1850, science would have smiled at such a romance as this, but, in 1900, as far as history could learn, few men of science thought it a laughing matter. If a perplexed but laborious follower could venture to guess their drift, it seemed in their minds a toss-up between anarchy and order.Unless they should be more honest with themselves in the future than ever they were in the past, they would be more astonished than their followers when they reached the end. If Karl Pearson’s noti ons of the universe were sound, men like Galileo, Descartes, Leibnitz, and Newton should have stopped the progress of science before 1700, supposing them to have been honest in the religious convictions they expressed. In 1900 they were plainly forced back on faith in a unity unproved and an order they had themselves disproved.They had reduced their universe to a series of relations to themselves. They had reduced themselves to motion in a universe of motions, with an acceleration, in their own case of vertiginous violence. With the correctness of their science, history had no right to meddle, since their science now lay in a plane where scarcely one or two hundred minds in the world could follow its mathematical processes; but bombs educate vigorously, and even wireless telegraphy or airships might require the reconstruction of society.If any analogy whatever existed between the human mind, on one side, and the laws of motion, on the other, the mind had already entered a field of a ttraction so violent that it must immediately pass beyond, into new equilibrium, like the Comet of Newton, to suffer dissipation altogether, like meteoroids in the earth’s atmosphere. If it behaved like an explosive, it must rapidly recover equilibrium; if it behaved like a vegetable, it must reach its limits of growth; and even if it acted like the earlier creations of energy,the Saurians and Sharks,it must have nearly reached the limits of its expansion.If science were to go on doubling or quadrupling its complexities every ten years, even mathematics would soon succumb. An average mind had succumbed already in 1850; it could no longer understand the problem in 1900. Fortunately, a student of history had no responsibility for the problem; he took it as science gave it, and waited only to be taught. With science or with society, he had no quarrel and claimed no share of authority. He had never been able to acquire knowledge, still less to impart it; and if he had, at times, felt serious differences with the American of the nineteenth century, he felt none with the American of the twentieth.For this new creation, born since 1900, a historian asked no longer to be teacher or even friend; he asked only to be a pupil, and promised to be docile, for once, even though trodden under foot; for he could see that the new American,the child of incalculable coal-power, chemical power, electric power, and radiating energy, as well as of new forces yet undetermined,must be a sort of God compared with any former creation of nature. At the rate of progress since 1800, every American who lived into the year 2000 would know how to control unlimited power.He would think in complexities unimaginable to an earlier mind. He would deal with problems altogether beyond the range of earlier society. To him the nineteenth century would stand on the same plane with the fourth,equally childlike,and he would only wonder how both of them, knowing so little, and so weak in force, sho uld have done so much. Perhaps even he might go back, in 1964, to sit with Gibbon on the steps of Ara Coeli. Meanwhile he was getting education. With that, a teacher who had failed to educate even the generation of 1870, dared not interfere.The new forces would educate. History saw few lessons in the past that would be useful in the future; but one, at least, it did see. The attempt of the American of 1800 to educate the American of 1900 had not often been surpassed for folly; and since 1800 the forces and their complications had increased a thousand times or more. The attempt of the American of 1900 to educate the American of 2000, must be even blinder than that of the Congressman of 1800, except so far as he had learned his ignorance. During a million or two of years, very generation in turn had toiled with endless agony to attain and apply power, all the while betraying the deepest alarm and horror at the power they created. The teacher of 1900, if foolhardy, might stimulate; if foolish, might resist; if intelligent, might balance, as wise and foolish have often tried to do from the beginning; but the forces would continue to educate, and the mind would continue to react. All the teacher could hope was to teach it reaction. Even there his difficulty was extreme. The most elementary books of science betrayed the inadequacy of old implements of thought.Chapter after chapter closed with phrases such as one never met in older literature:The cause of this phenomenon is not understood; science no longer ventures to explain causes; the first step towards a causal explanation still remains to be taken; opinions are very much divided; in spite of the contradictions involved; science gets on only by adopting different theories, sometimes contradictory. Evidently the new American would need to think in contradictions, and instead of Kant’s famous four antinomies, the new universe would know no law that could not be proved by its anti-law.To educateoneself to b egin withhad been the effort of one’s life for sixty years; and the difficulties of education had gone on doubling with the coal output, until the prospect of waiting another ten years, in order to face a seventh doubling of complexities, allured one’s imagination but slightly. The law of acceleration was definite, and did not require ten years more study except to show whether it held good. No scheme could be suggested to the new American, and no fault needed to be found, or complaint made; but the next great influx of new forces seemed near at hand, and its style of education promised to be violently coercive.The movement from unity into multiplicity, between 1200 and 1900, was unbroken in sequence, and rapid in acceleration. Prolonged one generation longer, it would require a new social mind. As though thought were common salt in indefinite solution it must enter a new phase subject to new laws. Thus far, since five or ten thousand years, the mind had successfully r eacted, and nothing yet proved that it would fail to react,but it would need to jump. The Education of Henry Adams  was published in 1907. A Centennial Version, edited by Edward Chalfant and Conrad Edick Wright, was published by the Massachusetts Historical Society in January 2007.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Bombing of Hiroshima essays

The Bombing of Hiroshima essays There are many events in history that have affected many different people. To me, the Bombing of Hiroshima is most significant. This event has changed the lives of many people, the thoughts of people, and many feelings of people as well as countries. The atomic bomb and its destruction of Hiroshima changed the world. I will explain what occurred in World War II that led up to Hiroshima, the aftermath of Japan, and how the world changed after the bombing. We were involved in a war called, World War II. This war began in 1939, yet Japan and the United States were not at war with each other yet. Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. This unacceptable act allowed the United States to declare war on Japan a day later. Three years later, on Feb. 19, 1945, we invaded the island of Iwo Gima. Later we also captured the island Okinawa, which was a crucial advantage for the United States. On, August 6th 1945, we dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. On the 14th of August, Japan accepted the unconditional surrender. I believe we utilized the atomic bomb because we lost over 1.5 million soldiers, while Japan had over 9 million soldiers. That means that if we were to invade Japan we would have to basically fight every soldier we had defeated before four times over! The enormous cost of Marines lives from Okinawa, was the deciding factor in plummeting the bomb. Which is why we reduced our losses by dropping the bombs. Losing was not an option. The effects on Japan were horrible. Once the bomb was dropped, instantly 70,000 died. During the bombing an equal amount was also injured. The blast itself was not the only thing that caused deaths. Radiation from the mushroom cloud was emitted causing thousand more to die during that year. Some, who survived, died from leukemia years later. Those who survived the radiation were scarred for life, for their family, friends, and objects we...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Competitor or Competition Focused

Competitor or Competition Focused If you’re competitor-focused, you have to wait until there is a competitor doing something. Being customer-focused allows you to be more pioneering. ~Jeff Bezos All too often we watch what all the other writers are doing in both writing and marketing, then try to snare which gimmick we can copy to work for us. Writing and self-promoting based upon our competition. I dare say the majority of early writers dont start off that way. Most want nothing more than for readers to flock to their story and gobble it up. Its probably why they started writing in the first place . . . to share a tale. However, reality sets in quick and harsh. Readers already have an abundance of reading material. So how can struggling writers be seen, heard, or better yet, read with so much competition? As a result, writers then gravitate to those more successful in the field, emulating the ads, the touring, the whatever-else they are doing. It becomes all about the numbers . . . yet the numbers arent that easy to come Then we commiserate with other writers. We join organizations, newsletters, Facebook groups comprised of writers, to learn how to be a more successful writer. But we have limited hours in the day. What goes lacking is the communication with potential readers. We forget were supposed to be customer-focused instead of competitor-focused. The goal is to reach out to where readers are:Â  libraries, schools, book fairs, radio, podcasts, niche organizations, maybe even your local paper. If you write romance, where do these souls tend to collect both in person and online? Ditto any other genre or subgenre. Do not stray from your reader being right up front in your writing world. Do not forget you are feeding them, educating them, entertaining them, using your talents to be the best you can be for them. Slowly and steadily, keep reaching out, respecting and adoring them. Readers are your market, not your competitors.